Alt porn (also known as alt-porn, altporn, alternaporn, or simply alt), a shortening of “alternative pornography”, tends to involve members of such subcultures as goths, punks, or ravers and is often produced by small and independent websites or filmmakers. It often features models with body modifications such as tattoos, piercings, or scarifications, or temporary modifications such as dyed hair. The term indie porn is also sometimes used, though this term is more generally used as a synonym for independent pornography, regardless of affinity with any kind of alternative subculture.
While pornography specifically oriented toward alternative culture did not arise until the 1990s, the work of Gregory Dark, David Aaron Clark, Michael Ninn, and Stephen Sayadian are seen by some as predecessors of alt porn. The Cinema of Transgression of Richard Kern and Nick Zedd (as well as Kern’s later photographic work) can also be viewed as early examples of alt porn. 
The first venue explicitly devoted to “subcultural erotica” was Blue Blood , a glossy magazine that began in 1992 and featured models with a goth or cyberpunk look. The biggest market for alt porn, however, has been on the Internet. Other than a few ephemeral personal websites, the earliest explicitly alt porn site was Blue Blood’s GothicSluts.com , in early 1999 followed shortly after by Raverporn.net (later renamed EroticBPM.com) in July of the same year, and later followed by NakkidNerds in December. Supercult began in 2000, followed by SuicideGirls in late 2001, which has grown to become the most popular and financially lucrative alt porn site. With the success of SuicideGirls, the number of alt porn sites has grown enormously since 2002. In addition to the above-mentioned sites, well-known altporn websites in operation as of September 2008 include Deviant Nation, Burning Angel, and GodsGirls.
The terms “alternative porn” or “alt porn” were coined in the early 2000s in reference to SuicideGirls, RaverPorn, and similar sites; longer-standing projects, such as Blue Blood, generally used terms such as “subcultural erotica”. 
Alt porn websites are often distinguished by their use of message boards, blogs, social networking, and other features of online community, encouraging participation by both models and viewers. While these features are not exclusive to alt porn sites, more typical porn sites tend to feature more or less anonymous models who are viewed by anonymous visitors.
Alt porn-themed videos are also become a growing niche in the adult video market. The work of directors Stephen Sayadian and Gregory Dark during the 1980s and early 1990s had many of the features of later alt porn and are often cited as an influence on current alt porn video. In 2001, two amateur videos under the title Technosex were produced, featuring women involved in the rave scene and a techno music soundtrack. Since 2004, director Eon McKai has been producing alt porn-themed videos for VCA Pictures, an otherwise mainstream adult video studio, and in 2006 was signed by Vivid Entertainment to produce alt porn-themed videos under the Vivid-ALT imprint. Vivid-ALT has also signed noted fetish photographers Dave Naz and Octavio “Winkytiki” Arizala. 
Many members of the alt porn community disagree on the definition of alt porn. Some consider it mostly an aesthetic quality while others see it as having a more ideological definition. This includes controversies over whether alt porn sites and videos should restrict themselves to softcore pin-up photography or include more sexually explicit hardcore content, whether alt porn need be explicitly feminist or not, and whether alt porn venues should present models of all genders and a range of body types rather than just conventionally attractive young women. Since every pornography company conducts its business and treats its models differently, it is hard to define it on an ideological basis, although the models’ freedom to speak their mind both about the industry, their employers, and political agendas is considered by some to be a vital part of the alt porn community. SuicideGirls have been criticized for restricting their employees’ ability to make public comments of this nature. This led to a very public falling out between the owners of SuicideGirls and a number of their former models, and larger debates as to whether alternative porn was inherently any more empowering than mainstream porn.
This is a list of monarchs who have been described as mentally ill in some way by historians past or present.
In many cases, it is difficult to ascertain whether a given historical monarch did in fact possess a genuine mental illness of some sort, whether he or she was merely eccentric or suffering symptoms of a physical illness, or whether he or she was just disliked by
Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon (reigned c. 605 BC-562 BC), became insane for a period of seven years
Caligula (12-41; ruled 37-41)
Justin II (520-578; ruled 565-578)
Ottoman Caliph Ibrahim I (1615-1648; ruled 1640-1648), known as Deli Ibrahim (Mad Ibrahim)
King Charles VI of France (1368-1422; ruled 1380-1422), known as Charles le Fou (Charles the Mad)
King Henry VI of England (1421-1471; ruled 1422-1461 and 1470-1471)
Queen Joanna of Castile (1479-1555; ruled 1504-1555), known as Juana La Loca (Joanna the Mad)
Tsar Ivan IV of Russia (1530-1584; ruled 1533-1584), known as Ivan the Terrible
Tsar Feodor I of Russia (1557-1598; ruled 1584-1598), son of Ivan IV. Known as Feodor the Bellringer (he was reputedly mentally retarded)
Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II (1552-1612; ruled 1576-1611).
King Charles II of Spain (1661-1709; ruled 1665-1700) , known as Charles the Bewitched
Queen Maria I of Portugal (1734-1816; ruled 1777-1816), known as Maria a Louca (Maria the Mad)
King Christian VII of Denmark (1749-1808; ruled 1767-1808)
King George III of the United Kingdom (1738-1820; ruled 1760-1820)
King Ludwig II of Bavaria (1845-1886; ruled 1864-1886), known as Mad King Ludwig
King Otto of Bavaria (1848-1916; ruled 1886-1913)
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Mamihlapinatapai (sometimes spelled mamihlapinatapei) is a word from the Yaghan language of Tierra del Fuego, listed in The Guinness Book of World Records as the “most succinct word”, and is considered one of the hardest words to translate. It describes “a look shared by two people with each wishing that the other will initiate something that both desire but which neither one wants to start.”
It is also mentioned in Defining the World in a discussion of the difficulties facing Samuel Johnson in trying to arrive at succinct, yet accurate, definitions of words.
The word consists of the reflexive/passive prefix ma- (mam- before a vowel), the root ihlapi (pronounced [iɬapi]), which means to be at a loss as what to do next, the stative suffix -n, an achievement suffix -ata, and the dual suffix -apai, which in composition with the reflexive mam- has a reciprocal sense.